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In other words "reformulate"

本文作者: 21ST
期号:131  阅读数:3720
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Language points — Explaining and defining

When you want to explain or define exactly what you mean by something, you can use the abbreviation ie (which is short for id est, the Latin equivalent of that is) or the expressions that is and that is to say. Some examples:

The police now have up to 96 hours, ie four days and nights, to detain people without charge.

Hot drinks (ie tea and coffee) are charged for separately.

First it excludes the public sector, that is to say, the nationalized industries.

Note that in academic writing and professional reports ie and that is are much more frequent than that is to say.

Language point — Restating

You can use the expression in other words for restating what you have just written. It generally introduces a version of the previous sentence which is both simpler and shorter and which often gives the writer’s interpretation of what has gone before. For example:

The actions which are defined as criminal vary with different social settings. In other words, crime is a relative concept.

Language point — Identifying and specifying

You can use the adverb namely to identify or specify something you have just referred to. For example:

This was particularly so with areas with large farms, namely Derbyshire, Leicestershire, South Wales and Speyside.

In this sentence, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, South Wales and Speyside are the four areas referred to as the areas with large farms.

You can use the abbreviation viz in the same way. For example:

There are three major advantages of the design, viz cheapness, simplicity and availability.

Inscriptions at Pompeii list the days of the gods viz Saturn, the Sun, the Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter and Venus.

Namely and viz typically introduce noun phrases. Namely can also be used to introduce a complete clause. In this case, it is generally followed by that.

Language point — Being more precise

You can use the expressions or more precisely and or more accurately to give more precise information about something. Some examples:

The most serious enemy of the mountain goat is snow, or more precisely, avalanches.

The wines under examination were American, or more accurately, California.

Activity — Matching quiz

Match questions A to E with answers 1 to 5. None of the answers is complete. Complete the answers using one of the following words or phrases (the same word or phrase can be used in more than one answer).

namely, or more precisely, in other words, that is

A. How many countries were founder members of the European Union (EU), or rather the European Economic Community as it was then known?

B. What to the nearest ten million is the population of the EU?

C. What have Turkey, Croatia and Macedonia applied to the EU for?

D. What position in the EU does Finland hold?

E. How many EU member states did not join the European Single Currency, the euro, in May 1999?

1. Four ____ the United Kingdom, Sweden, Denmark and Greece. Greece has since joined.

2. Membership ____ the process of becoming a member of the EU. Once an applicant country has fulfilled the accession criteria, member states may agree to open accession negotiations.

3. Six ____ France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.

4. 490 ____ 493 million as of January 1, 2007.

5. The presidency ____ the member state chairing meetings of the European Council, as well as most working groups. The presidency rotates every six months among the member states.

Activity — Explaining and defining or restating

Look at the sentences below and decide in each case whether the missing phrase is in other words or that is to say. Then rewrite the sentences using the missing phrase and changing the punctuation where necessary.

1. He didn’t go _____ it is not recorded that he did.

2. Not a single dollar in federal funds will depend on this test; ____ the federal government will not say that if you don’t give this test you’re not going to get these funds.

3. The most important fact requiring explanation is the depth at which the reefs occur ____ some mechanism is required to provide for the depth at which the coral is found.

Activity — Identifying and specifying

Look at the sentences below and put the correct expression, namely or or more precisely/accurately into the gaps. Then rewrite the sentences using the missing phrase. Expressions may be used more than once.

1. The economy has now created one million new jobs, ____, over the last four months, 978,000 new jobs.

2. It was another color, ____ green.

3. In addition, other study groups are being set up in three other subject areas, ____ agriculture, architecture and teacher training.

4. They seem to see no real problem. ____, they will to see no problem.

Answers to quiz

Explaining and defining or restating

1. That is to say, it is not recorded that he did.

2. That is to say, the federal government will not say that if you don’t give this test you’re not going to get these funds.

3. In other words, some mechanism is required to provide for the depth at which the coral is found.

Identifying and specifying

1. or more precisely/accurately; 2. namely; 3. namely; 4. or more precisely/accurately

Matching quiz

A-3, namely; B-4, or more precisely; C-2, that is; D-5, that is; E-1, namely
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