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加强中华文化研究 推进国学双语转化

本文作者: 21ST
期号:301
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6月22日至23日,由中国先秦史学会国学双语研究会、上海大学和北京语言大学主办的中国先秦史学会国学双语研究会第二届年会暨首届“儒易杯”中华文化国际翻译大赛颁奖典礼在上海大学成功举行,来自全国知名院校及企事业单位的1000多名代表参会。

本次大会设有四场分论坛,包括国学经典外译研究、国学双语翻译家与翻译史研究、国学双语与海外传播和国学双语与人才培养等十二个议题。上海大学赵彦春教授、上海交通大学王宁教授、南京大学程爱民教授等知名专家学者围绕议题在大会上做报告。

首届“儒易杯”中华文化国际翻译大赛由全球100家校企单位共同发起,于今年3月1日启动,历时4个月,来自全球337家院校及企事业单位的5750人次报名参赛。大赛旨在传播中国文化,传递中国声音,达到以赛促学、以训促学的目的。通过大赛,各高校之间得以加强沟通,增进友谊,共同发展。

在大赛颁奖典礼上,赵彦春教授以四个“C”总结了新时代翻译人才应该具备的四方面素质,即Commitment(家国情怀)、Cosmoplitanism(国际视野)、Collaboration(协同合作)以及Communication(善于沟通)。

据了解,中国先秦史学会国学双语研究会致力于传播中华优秀传统文化,研究国学双语,推进国学双语创造性转化、创新性发展、国际化传播,推进国际汉学交流,讲好中国故事,阐释好中国特色,展示好中国形象,向全球全面、准确、持续地彰显诸子百家文化和中国国学的智慧。

首届“儒易杯”中华文化国际翻译大赛笔译英译中一等奖作品赏析

原文:

The general and local festivals of the Chinese are numerous, among which the first three days of the year, one or two about the middle of April to worship at the tombs, the two solstices, and the festival of dragon-boats, are common days of relaxation and merry-making, only on the first, however, are the shops shut and business suspended.

The return of the year is an occasion of unbounded festivity and hilarity, as if the whole population threw off the old year with a shout, and clothed themselves in the new with their change of garments. The evidences of the approach of this chief festival appear some weeks previous. The principal streets are lined with tables, upon which articles of dress, furniture, and fancy are disposed for sale in the most attractive manner. Necessity compels many to dispose of certain of their treasures or superfluous things at this season, and sometimes exceedingly curious bits of bric-a-brac, long laid up in families, can be procured at a cheap rate.

A still more praiseworthy custom attending this season is that of settling accounts and paying debts; shopkeepers are kept busy waiting upon their customers, and creditors urge their debtors to arrange these important matters. No debt is allowed to overpass new year without a settlement or satisfactory arrangement, if it can be avoided; and those whose liabilities altogether exceed their means are generally at this season obliged to wind up their concerns and give all their available property into the hands of their creditors.

At Canton, some are busy pasting the five slips upon their lintels, signifying their desire that the five blessings which constitute the sum of all human felicity (namely, longevity, riches, health, love of virtue, and a natural death) may be their favored portion. Such sentences as “May the five blessings visit this door,” “May heaven send down happiness,” “May rich customers ever enter this door,” are placed above them; and the doorposts are adorned with others on plain or gold sprinkled red paper, making the entrance quite picturesque. In the hall are suspended scrolls more or less costly, containing antithetical sentences carefully chosen.

A literary man would have, for instance, a distich like the following:

May I be so learned as to secrete in my mind three myriads of volumes. May I know the affairs of the world for six thousand years.

A shopkeeper adorns his door with those relating to trade:

May profits be like the morning sun rising on the clouds. May wealth increase like the morning tide which brings the rain. Hold on to benevolence and rectitude in all your trading.

The influence of these mottoes, and countless others like them which are constantly seen in the streets, shops, and dwellings throughout the land, is inestimable. Generally it is for good, and as a large proportion are in the form of petition or wish, they show the moral feeling of the people.

译文:

中国传统节日、地方节日不胜枚举,岁首春节张灯结彩,四月清明祭扫缅怀故人,冬夏两至四序分,端午赛舟群竞渡。节日里人们闲暇自在,尽情欢乐,商铺只在春节三天关门歇业。

新年到,万户欢庆千家乐,天地欢腾喜气连,人们辞旧迎新,穿新衣,戴新帽。几周前年味已浓,大街两侧小贩们摆摊售卖,卖衣服、家具陈设,各种精美物件琳琅满目。一些人迫于生计不得不转手家中的值钱玩意,有时会低价卖出家里长期闲置的稀奇精巧的装饰摆件。

春节期间另一件值得一提的事情便是清算还债。店主们招揽生意忙得不亦乐乎,债主催促债务人付清欠款。如果不是实在无力还钱,旧账不过年,都该妥善处理,直到双方称心如意为止。到了年关还手头拮据的人为了安心过年,也会倾尽所能,勒紧裤腰带还债。

在广东,家家忙着贴挥春(即春联,粤语地区称挥春),表达出迎祥纳福的美好愿望(五福分别是:长寿,富贵,康宁,好德,善终)。“五福临门”,“喜从天降”,“贵人进门”都是常见的吉祥话,写在正丹纸或洒金纸上,贴在门柱上,让大门熠熠生辉。大厅里悬挂着价格不等的卷轴,上面有精心挑选的吉利话。例如,文人雅士选对联“揽尽诗书三千卷,阅遍风云六千年”;而经商之人的楹联则写着“利似旭日迎春晖,财如早潮腾紫气。”横批:“昌明德载”。

大街小巷,商铺住户,处处张贴春联,上面写有这些寄语或其他大同小异的金玉良言。它们意义重大,绝大多数是祈福祝愿,寓意美好,体现着主人家的品德修养。

翻译/太原理工大学 冯潇洋

点评:

本参赛译文行文流畅,语言凝练,整饬有序且富有文采。由于原文本身是对中国传统文化的介绍,因而在英译汉的过程中采用归化的翻译方法是合乎情理的,这主要体现在该译文的选词和句式的调配、变通中。

首先,在选词上译者具有高度的敏锐力把控力,如“正丹纸”“洒金纸”以及几幅对联的翻译也符合汉语语言习惯,同时展现了译者良好的人文功底及知识储备。

另外,译者通过对句子的变通,使译文富有感染力,还原原文文体风格。

如第一段“岁首春节张灯结彩,四月清明祭扫缅怀故人,冬夏两至四序分,端午赛舟群竞渡。”一句,译者通过适当的增译使句式整饬、富有节奏感,符合汉语文化的审美。

点评/中国先秦史学会国学双语研究会执行会长、上海大学教授  赵彦春
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