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采用多元模式 丰富词汇教学手法

本文作者: 21ST
期号:96  阅读数:10151
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  编者按:本栏目精选了国外教师采用多元化教学手法进行词汇教学的策略,介绍了词汇教学的新理念,帮助教师改进传统教学法。

  Multifaceted approach to vocabulary acquisition

  SINCE most classrooms contain different types of students, teachers are advised to adopt a multifaceted approach to vocabulary acquisition. Here are some strategies for implementing this approach.

  * Require independent reading

  Draw up a recommended reading list and set students to read a certain number of books they like from the list. In their reading, they may come across a number of words, phrases and expressions that they do not know. Ask students to first guess the meanings of the words according to the context, then look them up in a dictionary.

  * Make use of semantic maps

  Semantic maps help students associate an unfamiliar word with familiar words. You can follow these steps to map the word “noun”.

  Step 1: Draw a circle and write “noun” in the center of it.

  Step 2: Draw smaller circles around the central circle and fill each with a key related word, such as person, place, or thing.

  Step 3: Surround each outer circle with a series of subcircles, each containing an example of the related word, such as the name of a specific person, place, or thing.

  Step 4: Show the relationships by connecting all the circles with lines.

  * Have students keep vocabulary logs

  Get students to prepare notebooks for listing, defining, and using new words that they learn from independent reading or in class. Have students copy the context in which they first encounter each word. Periodically collect students’ logs and provide opportunities for students to hear, see, and use the words in context.

  * Teach students the key word method

  Ask students to think of an image that connects an unfamiliar word with a familiar key word that sounds similar or is contained within the target word. For example, to remember the word “truculent”, students might think of the key word “truck” and then draw or visualize a picture of a fierce-looking person driving a truck to represent the meaning of the word.

  * Preteach unfamiliar vocabulary in reading assignments

  Studies suggest that students must encounter a new word in print several times in order to remember its meaning. However, the number of encounters needed to learn the word is significantly reduced when students are taught the meaning of the word before encountering it in a reading assignment.

  由于学生水平有差异,老师在讲授词汇的时候最好采用多元化的教学手法。以下是建议的教学策略。

  1.要求学生独立阅读

  老师拟定一个阅读书目列表,让学生在列表中选择一定数目的他们喜欢的书籍进行阅读。在阅读过程中,他们会遇到一些不认识的单词,词组和惯用表达法。让学生先根据语境猜测词义,然后查字典确认单词的含义。

  2.使用语义图

  语义图能够帮助学生把不熟悉的和熟悉的词汇联系在一起。比如,如果为“noun”这个词做语义图,你可以按照下面的步骤去做。

  第一步:画一个圆圈,在中间写上“noun”。

  第二步:在这个圆圈周围画几个小圆圈,每个里面写上一个主要的关联词,如人物、时间、地点。

  第三步:在每个小圆圈周围再画一些更小的圆圈,每个里面写上关联词的例子,比如一个具体的人物、地点或事件的名称。

  第四步:用线连接这些圆圈以展示词汇之间的关系。

  3.让学生记词汇日志

  要求学生准备笔记本记录、解释并运用他们在平时阅读中或课堂上遇到的生词。让他们在本上记录第一次遇到一个生词的上下文语境。老师定期收集学生的日志,并提供机会让学生在语境中听、看或使用这些词汇。

  4.教给学生关键词方法

  让学生联想一个形象,这个形象要能够把一个他们不熟悉的单词和另外一个熟悉的关键词联系在一起。这个关键词要和生词发音相似或者被包含在生词的词形内。比如,学生们如果想记住“truculent”这个单词,就可以从词形的角度联想关键词“truck”,然后想象一幅一个面相凶猛的人开卡车的画面,让这样的一个形象来代表这个单词的含义。

  5.在学生阅读前教给他们生词

  研究发现学生需要在阅读中反复若干次遇到一个词才能记住它的含义。然而,如果在他们阅读之前学过这个词的话,这个反复过程的次数会大大减少。

  

  

  

  
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